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Annual Congress on Endocrinology, Diabetes and Healthcare, will be organized around the theme “Endocrine Complications and Management during COVID-19”

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Heart disease is a complication that may affect people having diabetes if their condition is not managed well for a long period of time. High blood pressure (Hyperglycemia), which characterizes diabetes, in combination with free fatty acids within the blood can alter the character of blood vessels, and this can lead to heart disease. Vascular disorders include coronary artery disease (CAD), retinopathy (damage to the vision) and nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and heart stroke. Diabetes also affects the heart muscle which causes both systolic and diastolic heart failure

One of the most significant features of diabetes management is the self-management of diabetes which can be effectively achieved, and complications prevented with the help and support of the nursing team. Diabetes specialist nurses play an essential role in screening diabetic persons, detecting early onset of diabetes, considering nutritional needs of the patient, promoting self-management, providing prevention advice, spreading awareness on diabetes and providing health education. It is very necessary for nurses to be well educated, trained and skilled sufficiently to be able to proficiently deliver care, support self-management and provide advice to diabetic persons.

Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels. Diabetes can be caused by the pancreas not producing insulin (type 1 diabetes) or by insulin resistance (cells do not respond to insulin; type 2 diabetes).

Diabetes insipidus Patients with diabetes insipidus have excessive thirst and excrete large amounts of extremely diluted urine. Diabetes insipidus is generally a result of either a lack of antidiuretic hormone or insensitivity to antidiuretic hormone causing kidney or nephron dysfunction.

Type one polygenic disease (also called polygenic disease mellitus) is Associate in Nursing disease within which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the duct gland. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. Patients are usually treated by insulin-replacement therapy.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most frequent subtype of diabetes, is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycaemia). It arises from a resistance to and relative deficiency of the pancreatic β-cell hormone insulin.


  • Track 3-1 Diabetes
  • Track 3-2 Type 1 diabetes
  • Track 3-3Type 2 diabetes
  • Track 3-4 Diabetes insipidus

High levels of sugars or glucose in the blood lead to such a chronic condition called diabetes mellitus. High aldohexose in blood could cause eye injury, excretory organ injury, and nerve injury. Diabetes increases the risk of various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart stroke and narrowing of arteries which reduces the blood flow through the arteries. High levels of glucose in the blood can damage blood vessels and nerves causing loss of sensation in sexual organs, which leads to sexual dysfunction. In addition to this, people with diabetes have more chances to develop infections that may lead to allergies. Diabetes is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, and blindness. Diabetes can also cause foot ulcers and hearing problems, people with diabetes have hearing impairment commonly. Maintaining blood glucose levels, blood pressure, diabetic gastro paresis which has been reported to have the main cause as Diabetes Mellitus and cholesterol at or close to normal can help delay or prevent diabetes complications.

  • Track 4-1Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Track 4-2Prediabetes
  • Track 4-3Increased thirst
  • Track 4-4Frequent urination
  • Track 4-5Extreme hunger
  • Track 4-6Unexplained weight loss

Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. Diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening.

•        Cardiovascular disease. Diabetes dramatically will increase the chance of assorted vessel issues, as well as artery illness with hurting (angina), attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis). If you've got polygenic disease, you are a lot of seemingly to own cardiopathy or stroke.

•        Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar will injure the walls of the little blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, particularly in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that sometimes begins at the guidelines of the toes or fingers and bit by bit spreads upward.

Left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation. For men, it may lead to erectile dysfunction.

•        Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys contain countless small vas clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe harm will cause kidney disease or irreversible end-stage renal disorder, which can need qualitative analysis or a urinary organ transplant.

• Eye damage (retinopathy). Diabetes will harm the blood vessels of the tissue layer (diabetic retinopathy), doubtless resulting in visual disorder. Diabetes additionally will increase the danger of different serious vision conditions, like cataracts and eye disease.

•        Foot damage. Nerve harm within the feet or poor blood flow to the feet will increase the danger of assorted foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters will develop serious infections, which frequently heal poorly.These infections might ultimately need toe, foot or leg amputation.

•        Skin conditions. Diabetes might leave you additional liable to skin issues, as well as microorganism and plant life infections.

•        Hearing impairment. Hearing issues square measure a lot of common in folks with polygenic disease.

•        Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 polygenic disease could increase the danger of insanity, like Alzheimer’s. The poorer your blood glucose management, the larger the danger seems to be. Although there are a unit theories on however these disorders may well be connected, none has however been tried.

•     Depression. Depression symptoms square measure common in folks with sort one and kind a pair of polygenic disease. Depression can affect diabetes management.

  • Track 5-1Cardiovascular disease
  • Track 5-2Nerve damage (neuropathy)
  • Track 5-3Kidney damage (nephropathy)
  • Track 5-4Eye damage (retinopathy)
  • Track 5-5Foot damage
  • Track 5-6Hearing impairment

Metabolic syndrome may be a medical disorder that will cause disorder and polygenic disease. Metabolic syndrome is a Group of conditions increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Also, a hormone disorder in which the female body produces too much of certain hormones. Genetic factors influence every individual element of the syndrome, and also the syndrome itself. A case history that has sort a pair of polygenic disease, high blood pressure, and early cardiovascular disease greatly will increase the prospect that a private can develop metabolic syndrome. Most of the disorders related to metabolic syndrome don't have any symptoms, although a large waist circumference is a visible sign and it alters sex hormone levels. If your glucose is extremely high, you may expertise signs and symptoms of polygenic disease together with hyperbolic thirst and elimination, fatigue, and blurred vision.

The following factors increase your chances of having metabolic syndrome

  • Track 6-1Age. Your risk of metabolic syndrome increases with age.
  • Track 6-2Ethnicity. In the United States, Hispanics— especially Hispanic women — appear to be at the greatest risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
  • Track 6-3Obesity. Carrying too much weight, especially in your abdomen, increases your risk of metabolic syndrome.

The endocrine system is a network of glands that turn out and unleash hormones that facilitate management several necessary body functions, as well as the body's ability to alter calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The system influences, however, your heart beats, however, your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to create a baby. It plays a crucial role in whether or not or not or not you develop the polygenic disorder, thyroid unwellness, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a number of different hormone-related disorders. The system consists of a variety of various glands that secrete hormones that dictate however cells and organs behave. The system is liable for regulation several of the body's processes.


  • Track 7-1Makes hormones that control your moods, growth and development, metabolism, organs, and reproduction
  • Track 7-2Sends those hormones into your bloodstream so they can travel to other body parts

Each secretory organ of the system releases specific hormones into your blood. These hormones travel through your blood to alternative cells and facilitate management or coordinate several body processes.

The list below provides a variety of the roles of glands within the endocrine system:

•        Pancreas – regulates blood glucose levels

•        Thyroid gland - helps to regulate our metabolism

•        Pituitary gland – stimulates growth

•        Pineal gland – helps to regulate our sleep patterns

•        Testes – promote development of male sex characteristics

  • Track 8-1 Pancreas – regulates blood glucose levels
  • Track 8-2 Thyroid gland - helps to regulate our metabolism
  • Track 8-3Pituitary gland – stimulates growth
  • Track 8-4Pineal gland – helps to regulate our sleep patterns
  • Track 8-5 Testes – promote development of male sex characteristics

Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactions that alter the body to sustain life. Energy metabolism is one of these processes and is vital for life. The body is ready to use fat, protein and carbohydrate to provide energy. The duct gland plays a crucial half in energy metabolism by secreting the hormones internal secretion and endocrine that severally create aldohexose and fatty acids offered for cells to use for energy.


  • Track 9-1Identify the normal range of plasma glucose concentrations and the hormonal regulation of its metabolism, storage, and mobilization.
  • Track 9-2Describe the hormonal regulation of energy substrate metabolism during the fed and fasted states and understand the consequences of its dysregulation.
  • Track 9-3Describe the hormonal regulation of energy substrate metabolism during the fed and fasted states and understand the consequences of its dysregulation.
  • Track 9-4Identify the normal range of dietary sodium intake, its body distribution, and routes of excretion. Explain the roles of antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, angiotensin, and atrial natriuretic hormone in the regulation of sodium balance.

The endocrine system balances the hormones in the bloodstream. If your body has an excessive amount of or deficient of a particular endocrine, the feedback system signals the right secretory organ or glands to correct the matter. A endocrine imbalance could occur if this method has bother keeping the proper level of hormones within the blood, or if your body does not clear them out of the bloodstream properly.

Endocrine disorders are typically categorized into two types:

Endocrine sickness that results once a secretory organ produces an excessive amount of or deficient of Associate in nursing endocrine endocrine, called a hormone imbalance.

Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels

Increased or attenuate levels of endocrine endocrine is also caused by

A problem with the endocrine feedback system

•        Injury to an endocrine gland

•        Tumor of an endocrine gland

  • Track 10-1Injury to an endocrine gland
  • Track 10-2Tumor of an endocrine gland

The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck and produces thyroid hormone, which helps regulate the body’s metabolism. Problems with the thyroid gland include too much (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism) thyroid hormone, inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), thyroid nodules (lumps in the thyroid gland), or thyroid cancer.

Hyperthyroidism refers to having too much thyroid hormone in the blood, which results in an increase in the body's metabolism. 

Hypothyroidism refers to having too little thyroid hormone, which can result in a slowing of the body's metabolism.

Thyroiditis refers to inflammation of the thyroid gland. This can sometimes result in a temporary increase thyroid hormone in the blood (hyperthyroidism), but can also cause long-term destruction of the thyroid gland, eventually causing low thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism).

  • Track 11-1Hypothyroidism
  • Track 11-2Thyroiditis

The pituitary is a tiny secreter (about the scale of a excretory organ bean) situated at the bottom of the brain, simply below the optic (eye) nerve in a very bony space called the sella turcica. It is created of the anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) endocrine. It is usually referred to as the “master gland” as a result of it produces variety of endocrines that regulate different hormone glands within the body.

Cushing's disease is a rare condition caused by associate degree overrun of the adrenal internal secretion Cortef. The most common variety of adenosis is thanks to associate excess secretion of the pituitary internal secretion, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which circulates in the blood and stimulates the adrenal gland.

The adrenal glands area unit placed simply higher than the kidneys and turn out 3 major hormones, two of which originate in the outer adrenal cortex (cortisol and aldosterone) and the other from the inner adrenal medulla (epinephrine):

Cortisol, an important hormone for the regulation of glucose and protein metabolism, as well as blood pressure and the immune system.

Aldosterone, a hormone involved in blood pressure, sodium and potassium balance.

Epinephrine (adrenalin), a major hormone of the sympathetic nervous system and the “fight-or-flight” response.

Adrenal insufficiency involves reduced internal secretion secretion from the suprarenal gland, leading to a deficiency of all adrenal hormones, together with hydrocortisone and mineralocorticoid.

  • Track 12-1Primary Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Track 12-2Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

Reproductive secretion disorders will have an effect on fertility and will have long effects on metabolic, vessel and bone health. The generative hormones embody steroid hormone and Lipo-Lutin in girls and androgen in men.

Ovarian insufficiency (sometimes referred to as premature menopause) happens once the ovaries either don't develop or square measure broken and not perform usually. Ovaries will be surgically removed, or broken by the system, or from therapy, or radiation treatments for sure styles of cancer.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic condition that happens in some women of generative age. Symptoms will embrace irregular expelling periods, loss of fertility, magnified hair growth on the face, chest, or abdomen, acne, and an inclination toward weight gain and hypoglycaemic agent resistance (diabetes).

Testosterone, the male internal secretion (produced within the testes), has a crucial role in maintaining fertility, energy, strength and metabolism. Men with low androgen will have symptoms of low energy and mood likewise as reduced strength and sexual desire (sex drive). In the future, they're conjointly in danger for low bone density (osteoporosis). The causes of low androgen are often sex gland trauma, radiation or therapy sure enough kinds of cancer, infection or loss of blood offer to the testes.

  • Track 13-1Menopausal Symptoms.
  • Track 13-2Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
  • Track 13-3Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
  • Track 13-4Low Testosterone in Men.

Diabetes affects however the body regulates glucose levels. Insulin helps to scale back levels of glucose whereas glucagon's role is to extend glucose levels. In individuals while not polygenic disease, hypoglycemic agent and internal secretion work along to stay glucose levels balanced.

In polygenic disease, the body either does not manufacture enough hypoglycemic agent or does not respond properly to hypoglycemic agent inflicting AN imbalance between the results of hypoglycemic agent and internal secretion.

In sort one polygenic disease, the body is not able to manufacture enough hypoglycemic agent so glucose becomes too high unless hypoglycemic agent is injected.

In sort a pair of polygenic disease, the body is unable to retort effectively to hypoglycemic agent, which may additionally lead to beyond traditional glucose levels. Medications for type 2diabetes include those which help to increase insulin sensitivity, those which stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin and other medications which inhibit the release of glucagon.

  • Track 14-1Type 2 diabetes A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose).
  • Track 14-2Type 1 diabetes A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
  • Track 14-3Prediabetes A condition in which blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be type 2 diabetes.
  • Track 14-4Gestational diabetes A form of high blood sugar affecting pregnant women.

<span background-color:="" font-family:="" font-size:="" roboto="" span="" style="\" color:"="">Hormones play a major role in driving a child’s growth and development. Problems with growth, puberty, and sexual development typically have their roots within the system. Endocrinology also deals with hypoglycaemia and other forms of hyperglycaemia in childhood, variations of puberty, as well other adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary problems. Many pediatric endocrinologists have interests and experience in bone metabolism, supermolecule metabolism, adolescent medicine, or inborn errors of metabolism.

  • Track 15-1Adrenal glands disorders.
  • Track 15-2Adrenoleukodystrophy.
  • Track 15-3Bone and mineral disorders.

There are presently over one.9 billion people who are weighty or overweight, resulting in an increase in connected health complications, as well as internal secretion resistance, kind a pair of polygenic disease, upset, disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The finding that fat and disorder are amid chronic inferior inflammation has essentially modified our read of the underlying causes and progression of fleshiness and metabolic syndrome. We currently apprehend that associate inflammatory program is activated early in fat growth and through chronic fat, for good skewing the system to a pro-inflammatory constitution, and we are beginning to delineate the reciprocal influence of fatness and inflammation.

  • Track 16-1Stress
  • Track 16-2Overweight
  • Track 16-3Sedentary lifestyle
  • Track 16-4Coronary heart disease

•C-peptide Suppression Test, Calcium Infusion Test for Medullary Cancer of the Thyroid, Captopril Test, Clomiphene Test, Clonidine Suppression Test, Combined Pituitary Function Tests (CPT), Cortisol Day Curve, CRH Test


•Radioactive Iodine Test, Screening for Ovulation, Selective Arterial Injection for the Localization of Gastrinomas and Insulinomas, Selenium Cholesterol Scanning for Conn's Tumours


Technetium Scan, Therapeutic Trial of ddAVP, Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone (TRH) Test, Tolbutamide Test, Ultrasound, Visual Field Testing (Goldmann perimetry), Water Deprivation Test.


  • Track 17-124-Hour Urine Collection Test.
  • Track 17-2ACTH Stimulation Test.
  • Track 17-3Bone Density Test.